It is thought Māori used the Tasman region as a rich food and flax resource from as early as 1350 AD.1 A lack of archaeological evidence suggests there were no permanent Māori settlements in the immediate vicinity of the centre of Richmond itself. However, there is evidence of settlements at nearby Appleby, and numerous sites along the Waimea Inlet and the Tasman Bay/Te Tai o Aorere shoreline .2
Most of Waimea East was bought as large land holdings of 50-100 acres, with the Sutton family owning about one quarter of the total area.4 There were many absentee landowners, which disadvantaged the settlers who had to rent land from them and the sense of indignation continued for many years.5
A village soon began to develop. Richmond was named in 18546 by which time there were Methodist, Baptist and Anglican churches, as well as shops and businesses: bakers, butchers, coopers, shoemakers and general storekeepers. During the gold mining boom years, seven pubs in and around Richmond did a roaring trade. They included the White Hart, Plough Inn, Railway Hotel and Star and Garter.7
Education was important to the early settlers. Richmond School opened in 1856 and the Richmond Mechanics Institute, offering a book lending service and lecture evenings, was established in 1865.8
During the 1880s, two enterprises were involved in the extraction of minerals in the vicinity of Richmond. Between 10 and 12 tons of copper were taken from the Champion Copper Mine in 1883. About 500 tons of coal were extracted from a two metre thick seam of coal near Reservoir Creek between 1862 and the 1880s.9
Richmond was proclaimed a Borough in June 1891 and an Appleby farmer, George Talbot was elected the first mayor.10 By 1896, Richmond had a population of 500 people.11
The Nelson Railway ran between Nelson and Wai-iti, via Richmond, between 1876 and 1955. Richmond students travelled to Nelson College by train until 1952, when buses replaced the train service.12 Waimea College opened in 1957.
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Richmond's first agricultural show was held at the Richmond Fair Ground on 7 December, 1859. There was a ploughing match and entries of cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and horses, with produce classes introduced the following year. In 1876, the venue was changed to Mr Cannings' paddock, which became Richmond Park.13 The first A&P (Agricultural and Pastoral Association) show was held at Richmond Park in 1893.14
Electric lighting came to the Borough in 1910 thanks to Robert Ellis, who powered his Brightwater flour mill by turbine during the day. The turbine supplied power for lighting by night.15 Power lines were extended along the main highway to Richmond16 to provide lighting for households and 10 street lights in the town.17
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While the early settlers worked hard, they also enjoyed the ‘genial' climate and ‘arcadian' countryside.18 Fish were plentiful with the channels and holes around Saxton's, Best, Quarantine and Moturoa/Rabbit Islands yielding various kinds of fish: snapper, kahawai, terakihi, gurnard. "It would be a poor day if 12 dozen or more good flounder would not be caught," remembered Roly Papps.19
Sport of various kinds was also important in building the local community. Jubilee Park, located in Gladstone Road, has been the home of rugby football in the area since the 19th Century. Jubilee Park has hosted a range of other sports codes including croquet, hockey, cricket, tennis and soccer; and regional competitions between local fire brigades. Being the only public park in the borough for some time, it was also used for non-sporting events, such as Lord Plunket's vice-regal tours. In the early 1940s Lime and oak trees were planted to commemorate the European pioneers of the district. In the late 1940s the Richmond Sports Association was formed to raise funds for and oversee the building and management of a combined sports complex on the grounds.20
The Easter Monday picnic at Moturoa/Rabbit Island was a much anticipated occasion: "That was an event. All the local people would go...It was a great gathering of the community on that day. We used to play games on the beach and have races. Croucher's Bakery used to make hot cross buns for everyone for the occasion," remembered Veda Hammond.21
A note on the naming of Richmond
One of the early settlers of the area was George Snow, a tailor. He named the settlement after his English home, Richmond -on-Thames in Surrey. The Star and Garter Hotel, built in 1843, was named after a hotel of the same name in Richmond-on-Thames.22
Updated August 16, 2022.
Sources used in this story
- Harris, Jill (2002). A place to live: the Tasman District...a community profile. Nelson, N.Z.: Tasman District Council and Dry Crust, p8
- Sutton, J. (1992). How Richmond Grew. Richmond, N. Z: J. Sutton, p 9.
- Sutton, p 13-14
- Harris, p19
- Sutton, p 18
- Sutton, p 19
- Harris, p 19-20
- Harris, p 20-21
- Sutton, p 267-268
- Sutton, p 57
- Sutton, p 267
- Sutton, p 204
- Sutton, p 84-85
- Harris, p20
- Harris, p 21
- Kepes, A (Ed.). (1991). Richmond memories. Nelson, N.Z. : June Derecourt Printing Agency, p 7
- Sutton, p 205
- Richmond (1906) The Cyclopedia of New Zealand: Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts. The Cyclopedia Company Limited, Christchurch, New Zealand. 124-127.
- Papps, Roland J. (1982). Growing up in old Richmond. Reefton, N.Z. : J.E.Smith,p 21.
- Jubilee Park: transcript of the Oral History Interview with Muir McGlashen about the History of Jubilee Park, Gladstone Road, Richmond (1983).
- Kepes, p21
- Reed, A. W. (2002). The Reed dictionary of new Zealand Place Names. Auckland: Reed. p. 435; Discover New Zealand - a Wises guide. (1994). 9th ed. Auckland: Wises Publications. p.336.
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Further sources - Early Richmond
- Harris, Jill (2002). A place to live: the Tasman District...a community profile. Nelson, N.Z.: Tasman District Council and Dry Crust.
- Kepes, Andrea (Ed.). (1991). Richmond memories. Nelson, N.Z. : June Derecourt Printing Agency.
- Papps, Roland J. (1982). Growing up in old Richmond. Reefton, N.Z. : J. E. Smith.
- Robinson, K. (2019). From the country to the town: a history of the Nelson A. & P. Association. Nelson, N.Z.: Nelson Agricultural & Pastoral Association.
Sutton, J. (1992). How Richmond Grew. Richmond, N. Z.: J. Sutton.
- Richmond: dedication of Centennial Avenue a successful function tributes to the pioneers. (1940, February 26). Nelson Evening Mail, p. 7.
Richmond's first mayor: newspaper articles about George Talbot on the Papers Past website.
- Nelson Virtual Heritage Festival 2020: From the Country to the Park - Kirstan Robinson's film about the history of Richmond's A&P Showground.
- Queen Street, Richmond. (c1880). Tasman Heritage.
- Richmond. (1906). The Cyclopedia of New Zealand: Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts. The Cyclopedia Company Limited, Christchurch, New Zealand. 124-127.
- Waimea (c1842). NZ Heritage Maps Platform. (Early survey map, possibly by J. S. Cotterell)
- Waimea River. (Date unknown). NZ Heritage Maps Platform. (Map of Richmond showing land parcels and naming property owners)